The Indonesian Modern Art Aesthetics Paradigm in Historical Perspective
Sosio-cultural context of Indonesian artist’s concept influence Indonesian modern art paradigm, it shows in periodic style or in individual style. Aesthetics paradigm in one of their period became a common thesis coincide with socio-cultural context at that time. Every emerging thesis always has potential contradiction of thesis and anti-thesis before becoming a new thesis. Dialectical processes in Indonesian modern art least have five aesthetics paradigm.
First, during the beginning of 20th century until 1930, the emergent of romanticism exotics of Mooi Indie and the developing new Balinese painting from innovation of traditional wayang painting of Kamasan. It reflected the Dutch painters, local aristocrats’ painters and the Dutch with Indo society in that area. They were admiring harmony and idealistic convention, in painting in is the beautiful landscape in naturalistic and impressionistic style. We can see the Mooi Indie style of paintings at the painting of Du Chattel, Locatelli, Willem Hofker, Ernest Dezentje, Le Mayuer, Pirngadi, Abdullah Suriosubroto, Basuki Abdullah, Wakidi, Wahdi etc
Seond, at 1935-1965 the aesthetics paradigm of socialism contextual was escalating by the artists of Persagi untul Lekra era. Polotical circumstances and social changes were the main influence by the spirit of freedom and nationalism. Searching on Indonesian identity in arts and representing reality of social life is the main issue in this period. Nationalism insight and rejection to the romanticism exotics by Persagi are the anti-thesis movement against the established <ooi Indie paintings. Paintings are use to express people life and soul even to the revolutionary spirits. The paintings of Sudjojono, Hendra Gunawan, Affandi, Trubus Sudarsono, Amrus Natalsya, Djoni Trisno, Itji Tarmizi, etc, are the samples of this period.
Thord, at the end of 60’s until 1980’s, universal humanism aesthetic paradigm are becoming more intense. The arts creations are free from the political context. Individual consciousness and freedom of expression push individual exploration to creating diverse forms of expression. Modernization and economical development have significant effect to the arts. Personal creative process creating diverse expressions that tends to personal feeling and emotions (Lyricism). Intuitive, imaginative, decorative, and non-formal improvisatory are visual phenomenon inherent at this period. Most the dominant style at this period is the abstract arts. Achmad Sadali, A.D. Pirous, SriHadi, Popo Iskandar, Fadjar Sidik, Widayat, Zaini, Nashar, Rusli etc. are the example artists at this period.
Fourth, since 1974 aesthetics contextual pluralistic paradigms are emerging. For them the actual social contexts are more important the artists sentiment. Gerakan Seni Rupa Baru (The New Arts Movement) inborn with aesthetics paradigm against lyricism of personal art. This paradigm develop until 1980’s and become as synthesis as Indonesian contemporary arts. Contextual, participatory and analytics creative process are their base paradigm. They also destroy the classification of fine arts, high arts and lo arts, they believe in plural expression. On their works they want to express new tangible form with varied of medium, from collage, ready made, installation art, environment art to performance art. In realism style, photographic techniques in painting become super-realism. The infinite uses of medium are the expression of Jim Supangkat, F.X. Harsono, Nyoman Nuarta, Bonyong Muni Ardhi, Dede Eri Supria, etc.
Fifth, at the end of 20th century until now the new synthetics paradigms are emerging. At the period of 1980 t0 1990’s in Indonesian art, there are polarization in lyricisms and non-lyricisms. In between, some of the moderate artists are looking for the middle way. They look for the new tangible form of art without opposing the lyricism. Their phenomenon are the seed of synthetics, even they did not have supporter yet. Many young artists use the multimedia as medium of their expression, beside them surrealism, abstract expressionist, and the other forms of style are still used. They did not restricted to an aesthetics concept or social view like Seni Rupa Baru, they were unbound and have open mind. They use lyricism but made performance art, installation art and video art. Beside that, they did not see social phenomenon as one-sided truth. Works of Heri Dono, Dadang Christanto, Tisna Sanjaya, Marida Nasution, Hendrawan Riyanto etc. are the examples of this tendency. On other side, many young artists who use lyricism in their work start to feel fed up with finest things, personal image, esoteric and the blundted feel in social problems. In this tendency, there are varied expressions they made, from social comments using tradition symbols to the provocative style like the works of Taring Padi Groups.
M. Agus BurhanCurator.